We offer a position as an

Early Stage Researcher (M/F/D)

in the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Innovative Training Network Project MENELAOSNT in the field

Fabrication of CMOS ToF sensors with 2D/3D capabilities (ESR1)

The most common scheme to calculate the phase difference, and hence indirectly the distance to an object in the continuous wave Time-of-flight (ToF) approach involves integrating the light signal in different time intervals for every signal period. The small values of the integration windows require careful generation and synchronization of the control signals. In addition, signal degradation due to switching effects like charge injection, clock feedthrough and charge sharing through parasitic capacitances should be accounted for. To avoid the aforementioned problems, we propose the use of alternative demodulation schemes such as homodyne techniques. Additionally, the possibility of combining 2D and 3D vision capabilities within the same chip and the feasibility of  per-pixel demodulation signal customization will be studied.

The successful candidate will be employed for a maximum period of three years full-time equivalent and receives a generous financial package plus an additional mobility and family allowance according to the rules for Early Stage Researchers (ESRs) in an EU Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions Innovative Training Networks (ITN). A career development plan will be prepared for each fellow in accordance with his/her supervisor and will include training, planned secondments and outreach activities in partner institutions of the network. The ESR fellows are supposed to complete their PhD thesis by the end of the 3rd year of their employment. For more information please visit the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions Innovative Training Networks website.


  • Pixel specifications. Determination of the specifications at pixel level: size, bandwidth and power consumption. In the case of dual operation mode (2D/3D) additional control
    circuitry will need to be considered.
  • Design of specific circuit blocks for per pixel demodulation customization. Based on a reference signal of some tens of MHz, frequency dividers will be used to generate submultiples of the reference signal as well as specific control circuits for customizing the demodulation signal at pixel level
  • Fabrication and experimental characterization of a ToF camera. Fabrication of a 2D/3D ToF chip in CMOS 180nm technology,


  • Master of Science in Electrical Engineering, Electronics Technology, Electrical Engineering Technology, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Physics, Industrial Engineering, Information Technologies or related fields
  • ESRs must demonstrate that their ability to understand and express themselves in both written and spoken English is sufficiently high for them to derive the full benefit from the network training. Non-native English speakers are required to provide evidence of English language competency. (TOEFL … )
  • enthusiasm, creativity, team-work capacity, hard-working capability, resilience


  • pmdtec, Siegen, Germany, Dr. M. Albrecht, or AMO GmbH, Aachen, Germany, Prof. Lemme, 6 months, specifications and early design of the ToF pixel concept.


It is desirable for the applicants to have some basic knowledge on:

  • Analog and digital CMOS circuit design with modern CAD tools like Cadence or similar frameworks
  • Solid-state semiconductor devices and simulation frameworks (ATLAS, Sentaurus,…)
  • Programming languages; C, C++, Python and Matlab

The following scientific publications by members of the USC team provide a more clear insight on the topic of this PhD:

  1. J. Illade-Quinteiro et al., “Pulsed Time-of-Flight Pixel with on-Chip 20 klux Background Light Suppression in Standard CMOS Technology”, International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 987-1005, May 2018
  2. J. Illade-Quinteiro et al, “Distance Measurement Error in Time-of-Flight Sensors Due to Shot Noise”, Sensors MDPI, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 4624-4642, 2015
  3. J. Illade-Quinteiro et al, “Four-Transistor Pinned Photodiodes in Standard CMOS Technologies for Time-of-Flight Sensors”, Semiconductors Science Technology, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 045002-045013, 2015

For further information, please visit: https://citius.usc.es/equipo/persoal-adscrito/paula-lopez-martinez

The University of Santiago de Compostela (USC, 1495), hosts ~25,000 undergraduate students and more than 3,000 PhD students. Being recognized as International Campus of Excellence for the Campus Vida strategic research program (Spanish Ministry of Education), it has the infrastructure facilities and human resources needed for the training of young researchers.

CiTIUS, the Research Centre in Intelligent Technologies, is part of the Singular Research Centres Network of the Campus Vida. The Centre hosts more than 100 researchers, including 31 senior researchers and more than 50 PhD researchers. CiTIUS research activity is organized into 8 scientific programmes: 1. Autonomous sensors; 2. Advanced computing; 3. E-health; 4. Approximate processing; 5. Personal Robots; 6. Machine Learning; 7. Natural language technologies and 8. Artificial Vision. In the last 4 years (2016-2019), CiTIUS published over 150 articles in indexed journals (SCI-Scopus), 66% of them in the first quartile, and defended 38 PhD thesis. In the same period, the Centre attracted funding of over 10,5 M€, of which more than 2,7 M€ from projects in collaboration with the industry sector.

The position will be located at

CiTIUS, Research Centre in Intelligent Technologies
Rúa Jenaro de la Fuente – Campus Vida
15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain

Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Paula López Martínez

Planned Recruitment date: 1st September 2020.
Eligibility Criteria and Mobility Rule

ESRs must, at the date of recruitment, be in the first four years (full-time equivalent research experience) of their research careers and have not been awarded a doctoral degree. Full-Time Equivalent Research Experience is measured from the date when the researcher obtained the first degree entitling him/her to embark on a doctorate (either in the country in which the degree was obtained or in the country in which the researcher is recruited), even if a doctorate was never started or envisaged. Researchers can be of any nationality.

ESRs must not have resided or carried out their main activity (work, studies, etc.) in the country of the recruiting beneficiary for more than 12 months in the 3 years immediately before the planned recruitment date. Compulsory national service, short stays such as holidays, and time spent as part of a procedure for obtaining refugee status under the Geneva Convention are not taken into account.