We offer a position as an

Early Stage Researcher (M/F/D)

in the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Innovative Training Network Project MENELAOSNT in the field

Pseudo-passive indoor ToF 3D sensing exploiting light-based wireless communications infrastructure (ESR3)


Similarly to radar, ToF imaging systems are active systems, requiring the emission of modulated radiation to sense the scene. Differently from radar, the radiation is in the optical range (e.g., NIR) and usually no appropriate opportunity illuminators used to exist in the scene within this wavelength range. The situation has changed in the last years due to the introduction of modulated light sources, such as high-frequency electrodeless discharge bulbs and LiFi lamps. LiFi lamps exploit the high modulation bandwidth of LEDs for converting indoor illumination points into optical WiFi access points. The core idea is to conceive and develop a passive ToF 3D imaging system that builds upon previous experience on bistatic radar (e.g., the HITCHHIKER) and takes profit of existing LiFi or similar infrastructure as opportunity illuminators. A compressive sensing formulation of the 3D reconstruction problem should contemplate the sparsity or smoothness of the scene responses.

The successful candidate will be employed for a maximum period of three years full-time equivalent and receives a generous financial package plus an additional mobility and family allowance according to the rules for Early Stage Researchers (ESRs) in an EU Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions Innovative Training Networks (ITN). A career development plan will be prepared for each fellow in accordance with his/her supervisor and will include training, planned secondments and outreach activities in partner institutions of the network. The ESR fellows are supposed to complete their PhD thesis by the end of the 3rd year of their employment. For more information please visit the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions Innovative Training Networks website.


  • Evaluation of the possibilities and limitations of using light-based wireless communications infrastructure as illumination source for ToF imaging. The main opportunities and challenges for implementing this novel idea are to be analyzed.
  • Accurate modeling of the expected bistatic setups and extensive simulations are to be carried out to demonstrate the validity of the approach.
  • At the light of the simulation results, one or more hardware designs for implementing the idea are to be studied, in order to select the optimal one.
  • A prototype of the selected hardware is to be constructed. The ESR will have access to CiTIUS and pmdtec ToF technology.
  • The performance of the prototype as 3D imaging system is to be evaluated, both when using existing LiFi lamps as illumination system and in conventional operation, using its own illumination system, for comparison purposes.
  • Different operation modes are to be contemplated, e.g., from fully external operation, with no control over the LiFi light signal, to full control of the light signal. The system performance is to be evaluated in each operation mode. In the fully-controlled case different modulation schemes are to be considered (noise sequences, chirps, etc.).


  • Master of Science in Electrical Engineering, Electronics Technology, Electrical Engineering Technology, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Physics, Industrial Engineering, Information Technologies or related fields.
  • ESRs must demonstrate that their ability to understand and express themselves in both written and spoken English is sufficiently high for them to derive the full benefit from the network training. Non-native English speakers are required to provide evidence of English language competency (TOEFL, …).
  • Knowledge and experience on scientific programming languages, e.g., Matlab, Python, C, C++, etc.
  • Some basic knowledge on signal processing and Time-of-Flight imaging.
  • Knowledge on compressive sensing would be an advantage.


Depending on the ESR’s approach regarding basic ToF technology to be implemented in the sensor, one of the following two secondments is envisaged:

  • CiTIUS, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, 6 months, joint-design of the ToF sensing core of the sensor
  • Alternatively: pmdtec, Siegen, Germany, 6 months, joint-design of the ToF sensing core of the sensor.


Contact and further Information



The University of Siegen is an innovative and interdisciplinary university with almost 20,000 students, about 1,300 scientists and 700 employees in technology and administration. With a wide range of subjects ranging from humanities and social sciences to economics and natural and engineering sciences, it provides an outstanding teaching and research environment with numerous inter-disciplinary and transdisciplinary research projects. The University of Siegen supports a wide range of opportunities to combine work and family life. It has therefore been certified as a family-friendly university since 2006 and offers a dual career service. The University of Siegen is committed to increase the proportion of women in research and teaching. Adequately qualified female researchers are asked to apply for this position. Applications of disabled candidates are also encouraged.

The position will be located at

ZESS – Center for Sensor Systems
Paul-Bonatz-Str. 9-11
57076 Siegen, Germany

Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Otmar Loffeld

Planned Recruitment date: 1st September 2020.
Eligibility Criteria and Mobility Rule

ESRs must, at the date of recruitment, be in the first four years (full-time equivalent research experience) of their research careers and have not been awarded a doctoral degree. Full-Time Equivalent Research Experience is measured from the date when the researcher obtained the first degree entitling him/her to embark on a doctorate (either in the country in which the degree was obtained or in the country in which the researcher is recruited), even if a doctorate was never started or envisaged. Researchers can be of any nationality.

ESRs must not have resided or carried out their main activity (work, studies, etc.) in the country of the recruiting beneficiary for more than 12 months in the 3 years immediately before the planned recruitment date. Compulsory national service, short stays such as holidays, and time spent as part of a procedure for obtaining refugee status under the Geneva Convention are not taken into account.